Course Glossary


This shows the specialized terms used in EarthWise Academy. This section contains all the definitions used in the various course glossaries used by each course.

Browse the glossary using this index

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A

ACC

ACC - Alternative Compliance Criteria Alternative criteria that can be used to achieve either monthly or annual compliance with the enhanced coagulation requirements of the DBP Rule.
  • (DBP42) Enhanced Coagulation – Advanced Concepts & Alternative Compliance Criteria

Acidic

A condition in which a substance yields H+ ions when it dissociates in water, resulting in a lowering of pH.
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)<\ul><\li>

Acidity

The concentration of H+ ions in a solution, measured as pH.
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019) <\ul><\li>

Action Level

  1. Action Level (AL)
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
  2. A level at which the system must take additional action to reduce lead or copper levels and inform consumers about the actions they can take to lower exposure to lead in drinking water.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Activated Silica

A coagulant aid that is created on-site by neutralizing sodium silicate.
  • (COA02) Coagulation — Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249) <\ul><\li>

Activated Sludge Process

A biological treatment process in which a mixture of wastewater and activated sludge is agitated and aerated. The activated sludge is subsequently separated from the treated wastewater by settlement and recycled or wasted. Although the configuration of activated sludge plants vary, the activated sludge process includes one or more aerated reactors that keep the solids in suspension; a liquid-solids separation device known as a clarifier; and a method of recycling the separated sludge from the clarifier back to the aerated reactor(s).
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485) <\li>
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343) <\ul><\li>

Acute health effects

Adverse effect on human health as a result of short-term exposure. Acute health effects occur within hours or days of the time that a person consumes a contaminant.
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825) <\li>
  • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332) <\li>
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)(1488) <\li> <\ul>

Additional Routine Monitoring

  1. This refers to the requirement that any PWS, which collects fewer than five routine coliform samples per month, must collect at least five routine coliform samples per month, must collect at least five routine samples the very next month following a coliform-positive test result. This requirement can be reduced to no less than one sample the next month, with DEP approval, if the PWS has taken corrective actions before the end of the next month.
  2. Extra routine samples PWSs must collect during the month following a coliform positive test result. These extra samples can be reduced to no less than one sample the next month if the PWS has taken corrective actions before the end of the next month.
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Adsorb

The accumulation of one material on the surface of another material through physical bonds
  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Adsorption

The gathering of a gas, liquid, or dissolved substance at the surface at the surface of solid bodies with which they are in contact.
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Advanced Treatment

Consists of additional biological or chemical treatment processes (beyond secondary treatment) that are employed to remove constituents such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that are not reduced significantly as a result of secondary treatment. Any process of water renovation that upgrades treated wastewater to meet specific reuse requirements. May include general cleanup of water or removal of specific parts or wastes insufficiently removed by conventional treatment processes. Typical processes include chemical treatment and pressure filtration.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Aerobic

A condition in which high levels of dissolved oxygen are made available.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Aerobic Bacteria

Also called aerobes Bacteria that must have molecular (dissolved) oxygen to survive. Bacteria that will live and reproduce only in an environment containing oxygen, which is available for their respiration (breathing), namely atmospheric oxygen or oxygen dissolved in water. Oxygen combined chemically, such as in water molecules (H2O), cannot be used for respiration by aerobic bacteria.
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Agronomic Loading Rates

The annual whole biosolids application rate designed to:

  • Provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, silviculture crop, cover crop, horticulture crop or vegetation grown on the land.
  • Minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

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  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

AL

  1. AL - Action Level
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
  2. A level at which the system must take additional action to reduce lead or copper levels and inform consumers about the actions they can take to lower exposure to lead in drinking water.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Alkaline

 

(DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Alkalinity

  1. A measure of the ability of water to neutralize an acid. It is measured in terms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, present in the water.
    • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
    • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)
    • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
    • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)
  2. A measure of the ability of water or wastewater to neutralize acids. It is measured in terms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, present in the water. Alkalinity, which is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate, is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have a high alkalinity. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid must be added to a liquid to lower the pH to 4.5.
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
    • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  3. The capacity of water or wastewater to neutralize acids. This capacity is caused by the water's content of carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide and occasionally borate, silicate and phosphate. Alkalinity is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate. Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have a high alkalinity. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid must be added to a liquid to lower the pH to 4.5.
    • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Alternative Compliance Criteria

Alternative Compliance Criteria (ACC)— Alternative criteria that can be used to achieve either monthly or annual compliance with the enhanced coagulation requirements of the DBP Rule.

Anaerobic

A condition in which dissolved molecular oxygen is not present, however, some chemically bound oxygen may be present.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Anaerobic Bacteria

Also known as anaerobes. Bacteria that live and reproduce in an environment containing no "free" oxygen or DO (this type of environment is referred to as anoxic conditions). Anaerobic bacteria obtain their oxygen supply by breaking down chemical compounds which contain oxygen, such as sulfate.
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Anoxic

A condition in which dissolved (atmospheric) oxygen is deficient, however, oxygen is available in the combined form (e.g., nitrate, sulfate and carbonate).
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Autotrophic Organisms

Also known as autotrophs. Organisms that use inorganic materials for energy and growth.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Autotrophs

Organisms that use inorganic materials for energy and growth.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

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