Course Glossary


This shows the specialized terms used in EarthWise Academy. This section contains all the definitions used in the various course glossaries used by each course.

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9

90th Percentile Tap Sample Result

Identification of the 90th percentile tap sample result is accomplished by following two steps:

  1. Rank all tap sample results from lowest to highest.
  2. Multiply the total number of samples by 0.9.
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

A

ACC

ACC - Alternative Compliance Criteria Alternative criteria that can be used to achieve either monthly or annual compliance with the enhanced coagulation requirements of the DBP Rule.
  • (DBP42) Enhanced Coagulation – Advanced Concepts & Alternative Compliance Criteria

Acidic

A condition in which a substance yields H+ ions when it dissociates in water, resulting in a lowering of pH.
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)<\ul><\li>

Acidity

The concentration of H+ ions in a solution, measured as pH.
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019) <\ul><\li>

Action Level

  1. Action Level (AL)
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
  2. A level at which the system must take additional action to reduce lead or copper levels and inform consumers about the actions they can take to lower exposure to lead in drinking water.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Activated Silica

A coagulant aid that is created on-site by neutralizing sodium silicate.
  • (COA02) Coagulation — Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249) <\ul><\li>

Activated Sludge Process

A biological treatment process in which a mixture of wastewater and activated sludge is agitated and aerated. The activated sludge is subsequently separated from the treated wastewater by settlement and recycled or wasted. Although the configuration of activated sludge plants vary, the activated sludge process includes one or more aerated reactors that keep the solids in suspension; a liquid-solids separation device known as a clarifier; and a method of recycling the separated sludge from the clarifier back to the aerated reactor(s).
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485) <\li>
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343) <\ul><\li>

Acute health effects

Adverse effect on human health as a result of short-term exposure. Acute health effects occur within hours or days of the time that a person consumes a contaminant.
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825) <\li>
  • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332) <\li>
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)(1488) <\li> <\ul>

Additional Routine Monitoring

  1. This refers to the requirement that any PWS, which collects fewer than five routine coliform samples per month, must collect at least five routine coliform samples per month, must collect at least five routine samples the very next month following a coliform-positive test result. This requirement can be reduced to no less than one sample the next month, with DEP approval, if the PWS has taken corrective actions before the end of the next month.
  2. Extra routine samples PWSs must collect during the month following a coliform positive test result. These extra samples can be reduced to no less than one sample the next month if the PWS has taken corrective actions before the end of the next month.
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Adsorb

The accumulation of one material on the surface of another material through physical bonds
  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Adsorption

The gathering of a gas, liquid, or dissolved substance at the surface at the surface of solid bodies with which they are in contact.
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Advanced Treatment

Consists of additional biological or chemical treatment processes (beyond secondary treatment) that are employed to remove constituents such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that are not reduced significantly as a result of secondary treatment. Any process of water renovation that upgrades treated wastewater to meet specific reuse requirements. May include general cleanup of water or removal of specific parts or wastes insufficiently removed by conventional treatment processes. Typical processes include chemical treatment and pressure filtration.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Aerobic

A condition in which high levels of dissolved oxygen are made available.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Aerobic Bacteria

Also called aerobes Bacteria that must have molecular (dissolved) oxygen to survive. Bacteria that will live and reproduce only in an environment containing oxygen, which is available for their respiration (breathing), namely atmospheric oxygen or oxygen dissolved in water. Oxygen combined chemically, such as in water molecules (H2O), cannot be used for respiration by aerobic bacteria.
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Agronomic Loading Rates

The annual whole biosolids application rate designed to:

  • Provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, silviculture crop, cover crop, horticulture crop or vegetation grown on the land.
  • Minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

bs1207.swf

 

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

AL

  1. AL - Action Level
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
  2. A level at which the system must take additional action to reduce lead or copper levels and inform consumers about the actions they can take to lower exposure to lead in drinking water.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Alkaline

 

(DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Alkalinity

  1. A measure of the ability of water to neutralize an acid. It is measured in terms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, present in the water.
    • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
    • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)
    • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
    • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)
  2. A measure of the ability of water or wastewater to neutralize acids. It is measured in terms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, present in the water. Alkalinity, which is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate, is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have a high alkalinity. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid must be added to a liquid to lower the pH to 4.5.
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
    • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  3. The capacity of water or wastewater to neutralize acids. This capacity is caused by the water's content of carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide and occasionally borate, silicate and phosphate. Alkalinity is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate. Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have a high alkalinity. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid must be added to a liquid to lower the pH to 4.5.
    • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Alternative Compliance Criteria

Alternative Compliance Criteria (ACC)— Alternative criteria that can be used to achieve either monthly or annual compliance with the enhanced coagulation requirements of the DBP Rule.

Anaerobic

A condition in which dissolved molecular oxygen is not present, however, some chemically bound oxygen may be present.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Anaerobic Bacteria

Also known as anaerobes. Bacteria that live and reproduce in an environment containing no "free" oxygen or DO (this type of environment is referred to as anoxic conditions). Anaerobic bacteria obtain their oxygen supply by breaking down chemical compounds which contain oxygen, such as sulfate.
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Anoxic

A condition in which dissolved (atmospheric) oxygen is deficient, however, oxygen is available in the combined form (e.g., nitrate, sulfate and carbonate).
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Autotrophic Organisms

Also known as autotrophs. Organisms that use inorganic materials for energy and growth.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Autotrophs

Organisms that use inorganic materials for energy and growth.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

B

Basicity

The concentration of OH- ions in a solution, measured as pH or, alternatively, pOH. A solution is basic if it has a pH higher than 7.0 or a pH lower than 7.0.
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Biochemical Oxygen Demand — BOD A measure of the oxygen required to break down organic materials in water using biological means. The amount of oxygen required to oxidize any organic matter present in water during a specified period of time, usually 5 days. It is an indirect measure of the amount of organic matter present in water that is used to monitor natural waters and processed effluents discharged into natural waters.
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Biological Treatment

Microrganisms growing and reproducing in a controlled environment are used to partially stabilize (oxidize) organic matter.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Biosolids

Nutrient-rich organic material that are produced from the stabilization of sewage sludge and residential septage that meets specific quality criteria and are suitable for land application.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Biosolids (Exceptional Quality)

Biosolids that meet stricter pollutant and pathogen reduction criteria.

  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Biosolids (Non-Exceptional Quality)

Non-exceptional quality biosolids are biosolids that meet specified pollutant and pathogen reduction criteria. Criteria for non-exceptional quality biosolids are less stringent than criteria for exceptional quality biosolids.

Note: The term 'Biosolids' can be used to refer to all categories of biosolids collectively, or can be used to refer specifically to the category non-exceptional quality biosolids.

  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

BOD

BOD — Biochemical Oxygen Demand

A measure of the oxygen required to break down organic materials in water using biological means. The amount of oxygen required to oxidize any organic matter present in water during a specified period of time, usually 5 days. It is an indirect measure of the amount of organic matter present in water that is used to monitor natural waters and processed effluents discharged into natural waters.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Booster Chlorination

Water is treated with an additional boost of chlorine from within the distribution system.

Typical Water System showing Chlorine Booster Station

  • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)

Bottled Water System

A public water system that provides water for bottling in sealed bottles or other sealed containers. The term includes, but is not limited to, the sources of water and treatment, storage, bottling, manufacturing and distribution facilities. The term does not include a public water system that provides only a source of water supply for a bottled water system and excludes an entity providing only transportation, distribution or sale of bottled water in sealed bottles or other sealed containers.

  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Bottled, Vended, Retail, & Bulk-delivered Water Systems

Bottled, Vended, Retail, & Bulk-delivered Water Systems – (BVRB)

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Buffering Capacity

The ability of a solution to neutralize acids without a significant change in pH. Buffering capacity is also known as alkalinity and is measured in mg/L of equivalent CaCO3, a common buffer.

Bulk Water-Hauling System

A public water system that provides water piped into a carrier vehicle and withdrawn by a similar means into the user's storage facility or vessel. The term includes, but is not limited to, the source of water, treatment, storage or distribution facilities. The term does not include a public water system that provides only a source of water supply for a bulk water hauling system.

  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

 

BVRB

BVRB - Bottled, Vended, Retail, & Bulk-delivered water systems

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

C

Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2
Calcium hydroxide – Slake lime, a white powdery substance that is difficult and unpleasant to handle. Neutralization is rapidly effected.

  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2
– Slake lime, a white powdery substance that is difficult and unpleasant to handle. Neutralization is rapidly effected.

  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Capital Improvements Planning

A process for considering the future purchase or construction of expensive items.

  • (SEC01) Securing Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities 2954

Carbonaceous BOD (cBOD)

The stage of decomposition that occurs in biological treatment processes when aerobic bacteria, using DO, change carbon compounds to carbon dioxide; cBOD is sometimes referred to as "first-stage BOD" because the microorganisms attack organic or carbon compounds first. (Nitrogen compounds are targeted second, sometimes referred to as nBOD or "second stage BOD.")

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors — Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Carbonate System

Major acid/base system that produces a chemical reaction in water distribution systems. The carbonate system is comprised of:

  • Carbonic acid (H2CO3),
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3), and
  • Carbonate (CO32)

 

    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule — Basics (1423)

Cationic

An ion with a positive charge.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)

cBOD

cBOD (Carbonaceous BOD)

The stage of decomposition that occurs in biological treatment processes when aerobic bacteria, using DO, change carbon compounds to carbon dioxide; cBOD is sometimes referred to as "first-stage BOD" because the microorganisms attack organic or carbon compounds first. (Nitrogen compounds are targeted second, sometimes referred to as nBOD or "second stage BOD.")

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

CCR

CCR -Consumer Confidence Report

An annual water quality report that community water systems deliver to their customers.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
  • (PNR03) Public Notification – Delivery for CWSs [2326]

CCT

CCT - Corrosion Control Treatment

Water treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at users' taps while ensuring that the treatment does not cause the system to violate any primary maximum contaminant level.

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Critical Asset

Components of a water or waste water treatment system that are necessary to meet mission objectives (providing drinking water that meets or exceeds the National Drinking Water Standards, providing adequate water pressure to meet public safety needs, maintaining water service to critical users, maintaining wastewater collection system to protect public health, and providing wastewater treatment that meets the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System standards.
  • (SEC01) Securing Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities 2954

CWS

CWS - Community Water System

  1. Community Water System (CWS)
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (LCR12) LCR Planning Tools for CWS (2536)
  2. A public water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule — Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)

D

D Sample

Sample collected from the distribution system.

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)

D Sampling Sites

Representative sites within the distribution system.

Sample Siting Plan

  • (LCR13) LCR Planning Tools for NTNCWS (2537)

DBP Rule

 

DBP Rule - Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule

D&DBP RUle

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  • (DBP41) Enhanced Coagulation – TOC Monitoring (1281)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

DBPs

  1. DBPs - Disinfection Byproducts
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  2. Compounds, such as HAA5's and TTHM's that form when disinfectants encounter certain organic substances present in raw water. Long term exposure to some disinfectant by-products has been linked to cancer.
    • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

DBT

DBT - Design Basis Threat

Description of a specific adversary and mode of attack that has a degree of likelihood of occurring.

  • (SEC01) Securing Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities 2954

Denitrification

An anoxic process that occurs when nitrite or nitrate ions are reduced to nitrogen gas and nitrogen bubbles are formed as a result of this process.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Denitrifiers

Facultative heterotrophic bacteria (such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Achromobacter) that convert nitrate in wastewater to nitrogen gas, given an anoxic environment.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Denitrifying bacteria

Also known as denitrifiers. Specialized bacteria (such as Pseudomonas and Achromobacter) that convert nitrate in wastewater, into nitrogen gas.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

DEP

DEP - Department of Environmental Protection

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Department of Environmental Protection

Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

Design Basis Threat

Design Basis Threat (DBT)

Description of a specific adversary and mode of attack that has a degree of likelihood of occurring.

  • (SEC01) Securing Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities 2954

Destabilized

A condition in which the electrical charge of particles has been neutralized.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Detected Contaminant

Any contaminant detected at or above its detection limit.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Detection Limit

The amount of a substance with that EPA has determined to be the minimum concentration that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the true value is greater than zero.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Detention Time

The theoretical time that a parcel of water or other liquid spends in a particular treatment unit or reservoir.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)

Diatomaceous Earth

A fine material made up mostly of the skeletal remains of single cell, microscopic algae with a rigid, box-like internal structure consisting mainly of silica.

  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Digester Capacity

The total volume in gallons that a digester(s) can hold, or the volume used during the monitoring period, if not operating at full capacity.

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Discharge Monitoring Report

Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR)

Disinfectants

Substances that are added for the purpose of killing or inactivating the pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria found in water.

Chlorine, Chloramines, & Chlorine Dioxide are disinfectants.

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Disinfection Byproducts Precursors

Organic substances that combine with disinfectants to form potentially carcinogenic compounds such as HAA5’s and TTHM’s.

  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

A measure of the amount of free or molecular oxygen dissolved in water, expressed as:

  1. mg/L, which is the absolute amount of oxygen dissolved in the water mass or
  2. the percentage saturation of water with O2 (% sat).
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
    • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

DMR

DMR – Discharge Monitoring Report

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

DO

DO - Dissolved Oxygien

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Double Layer Compression

In the double layer compression mechanism large quantities of a salt that has no charge (neutral) are added. The salt works by compressing the double layer around the colloid. When the outer layer is compressed, the repulsive energy barrier around the colloid is reduced or eliminated. This allows the particles to combine.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)

Drinking Water Electronic Laboratory Reporting

Drinking Water Electronic Laboratory Reporting (DWELR)

A web-based application that provides a means for laboratories that are accredited by or registered with DEP’s Bureau of Laboratories to submit their drinking water sample data to DEP’s public drinking water program.

  •  (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)

DWELR

DWELR - Drinking Water Electronic Laboratory Reporting

A web-based application that provides a means for laboratories that are accredited by or registered with DEP’s Bureau of Laboratories to submit their drinking water sample data to DEP’s public drinking water program.

  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)

E

ERP

ERP - Emergency Response Plan

Contains policies, authorities, concept of operations, legal constraints, responsibilities, and emergency functions to be performed. Agency response plans, responder SOPs and specific incident action plans are developed from this strategic document.

  • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)

Exceptional Quality Biosolids

Biosolids that meet stricter pollutant and pathogen reduction criteria.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

F

Facultative Bacteria

Bacteria that can use either dissolved oxygen or chemically derived oxygen (from nitrate, sulfate or carbonate) for respiration and use organic materials for energy and growth. In other words, facultative heterotrophs can live under aerobic, anoxic or anaerobic conditions.

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)
  • BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Fecal Coliform Bacteria

Coliform bacteria (microorganisms) found in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals (including humans). Unlike total coliforms, which include a number of normal soil inhabitants that are harmless, fecal coliforms are more reliable indicators of fecal contamination, which may result in the spread of intestinal disease.

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Federal Safe Drinking Water Act

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from aboveground or underground sources. The Act authorized EPA to establish safe standards of purity and required all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with primary (health-related) standards. State governments, which assume this power from EPA, also encourage attainment of secondary standards (aesthetic-related).

  • (PNR10) Public Notification - An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification - Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

Field Order

An appealable notice given when, upon inspection, DEP staff determines a regulated facility has not attempted to correct a violation. These provide the facility with a time frame in which to correct the problem considered to be an imminent threat to human health and environment.

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Filtrate

Liquid derived from the dewatering of sludge.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Filtration

The process of removing fine particles from water by passing the water through various layers of media.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
  • (DBP43) Jar Testing for Process Control of Conventional Filtration: Part 1 (2019)

Finished Water

Water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to customers.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

 

Floc

Masses of non-settleable microorganisms and particles that come together to form progressively larger, heavier particles.

Flow Rate

Rate of wastewater flow through a wastewater treatment facility, typically measured in million gallons per day (MGD).

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Forage

Herbage that is available and acceptable to grazing animals.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Frequency

How often sampling occurs.

  • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)

G

General Permit

A statewide permit issued by the Department for a specific category of beneficial use, such as the beneficial use of biosolids, that a person or municipality that obtains a determination of applicability to operate under the permit if the terms and conditions of the permit and certain requirements are met

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Grandfather

also grandfathering

Use of historical data to determine if initial monitoring can be skipped.

  • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)

Green Manure

Cover crop that is incorporated into the soil, while green, for soil improvement.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Ground Water

Ground Water (GW)

  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)

Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water

Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water (GUDI)

  • (DBP15) DBP Rule - Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines 1570
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation - Basics 1280

GUDI

GUDI – Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water

  • (DBP15) DBP Rule - Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines 1570
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation - Basics 1280
  • (PNR11) Public Notification - Violations and Tiers for NCWSs 2333

H

Headworks

The facilities where wastewater enters a wastewater treatment plant.(BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Heterotrophic Organisms

Organisms that use organic materials for energy and growth.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Heterotrophs

Organisms that use organic materials for energy and growth.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

I

ICR

ICR – Information Collection Rule

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

IESWTR

IESWTR – Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Imminent Threat Violation

A condition at a PWS that may adversely affect the quality of drinking water and presents an immediate threat to public health.

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Incomplete Denitrification

A condition in which environmental conditions are not optimal to provide for the conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas (some of the nitrate remains as nitrate and some undergoes partial conversion yielding concentrations of nitrite). Typically, incomplete denitrification results in high levels of nitrate in the wastewater effluent.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Incomplete Nitrification

A condition in which not all ammonia is converted to nitrate (some of the ammonia remains as ammonia and some of the ammonia undergoes partial conversion yielding concentrations of nitrite). Typically, incomplete nitrification results in high levels of ammonia in the wastewater effluent.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Incorporation

Mixing of materials found on or spread upon the soil surface into the soil volume via the mechanical manipulation of the soil.

  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Influent

Wastewater or other liquid - raw (untreated) or partially treated - flowing INTO a reservoir, basin, treatment process, or treatment plant

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Information Collection Rule

Information Collection Rule (ICR)

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Inorganic

Describes material that is of mineral origin. Specifically, describes chemical compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen.

  • (COA02) Coagulation — Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)

Inorganic Material

Material such as sand, salt, iron, calcium and other mineral materials that are only slightly affected by the action of organisms in wastewater treatment. Inorganic matter is comprised of chemical substances of mineral origin; whereas organic matter is comprised of chemical substances that are usually of animal or plant origin.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Inorganic Matter

Particles produced by natural weathering of minerals. Examples include sand, salt, iron, calcium salts and other mineral materials.

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Inorganic Waste

Waste material such as sand, salt, iron, calcium and other mineral materials that are only slightly affected by the action of organisms in wastewater treatment. Inorganic wastes are chemical substances of mineral origin; whereas organic wastes are chemical substances usually of animal or plant origin.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule – (IESWTR)

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Intermittent TCR M/R Violators

Any PWS with 3 or less monthly or one quarterly monitoring violation during a 12 month period.

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Ion

An atom or molecule with an electrical charge.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)

Ionization

A process causing a movement of electrons within a compound (dissociation of ions) which subsequently causes metals to dissolve.

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule — Basics (1423)

J

Jar Testing

Laboratory, bench-scale tests designed to simulate the water plant's coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes. The tests can be used to experiment with such things as different coagulants, polymers, and pH ranges.

photo of jar testing unit

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)

 

L

Land Application

The spraying or spreading of biosolids onto the land surface, the injection of biosolids below the land surface or the incorporation of biosolids into the soil for beneficial use so that the biosolids can either condition the soil or fertilize crops or vegetation grown in the soil.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Land Reclamation Site

Drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. The term includes, but is not limited to, active and abandoned coal and noncoal surface mines and construction sites.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

LCR

LCR - Lead and Copper Rule

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Leaching

To dissolve out by the action of a percolating liquid.

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Lead and Copper Rule

Lead and Copper Rule (LCR)

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Lead Service Lines

  1. Lead Service Lines (LSLs)
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (LCR13) LCR Planning Tools for NTNCWS (2537)
  2. A service line made of lead that connects a water main to a building inlet. Also includes lead pigtails, goosenecks or other fittings when connected to a service line made of lead.
    • (LCR12) LCR Planning Tools for CWS (2536)

Legume

Plant that has formed a symbiotic relationship with bacteria (rhizobia) that have the capability to fix nitrogen (convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form for plants) addition, such as soybeans, alfalfa, red clover and trefoil.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Levels for Reduced TTHM/HAA5 Monitoring

040 mg/L and .030 mg/L for TTHM and HAA5, respectively for all water systems except small GW systems.

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Lime

CaCO3 or CaO - Quick lime.

LSLs

  1. LSLs - Lead Service Lines
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (LCR13) LCR Planning Tools for NTNCWS (2537)
  2. A service line made of lead that connects a water main to a building inlet. Also includes lead pigtails, goosenecks or other fittings when connected to a service line made of lead.
  • (LCR12) LCR Planning Tools for CWS (2536)

M

M Sample

Sample collected from the location in the distribution system with the maximum residence time.

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)

 

M/DBP

M/DBP – Microbial/Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)(
  • DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

M/R

Monitoring and Reporting

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)

Mandatory Health Effects Language

Specific health effects language required for primary MCL or MRDL violation, treatment technique violations and violation of the condition of a variance or exemption.

  • (PNR10) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

Maximum Contaminant Level

  1. Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
    • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)
  2. The highest amount of a contaminant that the EPA allows which helps ensure that drinking water does not pose either a short-term or long-term health risk. Unless otherwise specified, MCLs are defined in milligrams per liter (parts per million).
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule — Basics (1423)
    • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
    • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
    • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)

The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

Maximum Residence

That area of the distribution system where the water has the longest standing time and the longest contact time with a chemical disinfectant.

diagram of a water system

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level

  1. Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL)
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule – Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  2. The maximum permissible level of a disinfectant added for water treatment that may not be exceeded at the consumer's tap without an unacceptable possibility of adverse health effects.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)
    • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

MCL

  1. MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level
    The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to a user of a public water system.
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
    • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)
  2. The highest amount of a contaminant that the EPA allows which helps ensure that drinking water does not pose either a short-term or long-term health risk. Unless otherwise specified, MCLs are defined in milligrams per liter (parts per million).
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule — Basics (1423)
    • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
    • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
    • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

MCLG

MCLG – Maximum Contaminant Level Goal

The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

MCRT

MCRT - Mean Cell Residence Time

An expression of the average time that a microorganism or solid particle undergoes aeration in the activated sludge process.

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Mean Cell Residence Time

Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT)

An expression of the average time that a microorganism or solid particle undergoes aeration in the activated sludge process.

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)
  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Methemoglobinemia

Blood disorder caused when nitrite, converted from nitrate in the digestive system, interacts with the hemoglobin in red blood cells forming methemoglobin which cannot carry sufficient oxygen to the body's cells and tissues.

  • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

MGD

Million Gallons per Day

  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Microbial/Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct

Microbial/Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct – (M/DBP)

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Microflocs

  1. Tiny masses of non-settleable microorganisms and particles that come together to form progressively larger, heavier particles.
    • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  2. Very small (usually visible to the human eye) masses of non-settleable microorganisms and particles. These are beginning stages of flocs that come together to form progressively larger, heavier particles.
    • (COA02) Coagulation — Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249))

Million Gallons per Day

Million Gallons per Day – MGD

  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Mineralization

The conversion of an element from an organic form to an inorganic state as a result of microbial activity.

Mineralization Illustration

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)

The concentration of suspended solids (both organic and inorganic) in the mixed liquor of an aeration tank. MLSS is used as a measure of the concentration of microorganisms present.

  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)

The concentration of suspended solids (both organic and inorganic) in the mixed liquor of an aeration tank. MLSS is used as a measure of the concentration of microorganisms present.

  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

MLSS

MLSS – Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids

The concentration of suspended solids (both organic and inorganic) in the mixed liquor of an aeration tank. MLSS is used as a measure of the concentration of microorganisms present.

MLSS – Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)

The concentration of suspended solids (both organic and inorganic) in the mixed liquor of an aeration tank. MLSS is used as a measure of the concentration of microorganisms present.

  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Monitoring and Reporting Violation

Any violation incurred for failing to monitor and/or report for a regulated parameter specified by the Pa. DEP.

  • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

Monitoring Period

The time frame, generally in months, quarters, or years, during which water samples must be collected and tested in accordance with Pa Safe Drinking Water Regulations to determine compliance with applicable MCLs, MRDLs, or treatment techniques

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

MRDL

  1. Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule – Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  2. The maximum permissible level of a disinfectant added for water treatment that may not be exceeded at the consumer's tap without an unacceptable possibility of adverse health effects.
    • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)
    • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP20) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for PWSs Using Chlorine Dioxide (1278)

MRDLG

MRDLG – Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal

The unenforceable maximum level of disinfectant added for water treatment for which there is no known risk to human health.

  • (CCR01)Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Overview (2338)

 

Multiple Service Connection

This refers to the condition where a PWS serves many individual buildings (connections), i.e., homes or businesses that use public water.

graphic showing difference between single service connection and multiple service connection

  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
  • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
  • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

N

N/A Site

  1. Buildings that are not used by a LSL and do not contain lead pipes or copper pipes with lead solder
  2. Building containing copper plumbing materials (lead-free solder) installed after January 6, 1991
  • (LCR13) LCR Planning Tools for NTNCWS (2537)

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR)

NPDWRs (or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems.

  • (PNR10) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

 

Natural Organic Matter

Natural Organic Matter (NOM) - Organic matter that exists naturally in the water environment.

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
  • (DBP40) Enhanced Coagulation – Basics (1280)

Natural Radiologicals

Naturally occurring radiological contaminants including gross alpha, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium.

  • (RAD01) Radionuclide Rule – Initial Monitoring and Reporting (1503)

nBOD

Nitrogenous BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) - The stage of decomposition that occurs in biological treatment processes when specialized aerobic bacteria (nitrifiers), use DO to change ammonia to nitrate; sometimes referred to as second-stage BOD.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

NCWS

NCWS - Noncommunity Water System

  1. A public water system that is not a community water system
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  2. A public water system that is not a community water system. Noncommunity water systems are further categorized as nontransient and transient water systems.
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)

Nitrification

  1. An aerobic process in which specialized bacteria (such as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) change the ammonia and organic nitrogen in wastewater into oxidized nitrogen (usually nitrate).
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
    • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  2. Biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate, or a biologically induced increase in the oxidation state of nitrogen.
    • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
    • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Nitrification Illustration

Nitrifiers

Specialized bacteria (such as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) that change ammonia and organic nitrogen in wastewater, into oxidized nitrogen (usually nitrate).

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Nitrifying Bacteria

Also known as nitrifiers

Specialized bacteria (such as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) that change ammonia and organic nitrogen in wastewater, into oxidized nitrogen (usually nitrate).

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Nitrogenous BOD

Nitrogenous BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) - The stage of decomposition that occurs in biological treatment processes when specialized aerobic bacteria (nitrifiers), use DO to change ammonia to nitrate; sometimes referred to as second-stage BOD.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

NOM

NOM – Natural Organic Matter
Organic matter that exists naturally in the water environment.

  • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Non-Exceptional Quality Biosolids

Non-exceptional quality biosolids are biosolids that meet specified pollutant and pathogen reduction criteria. Criteria for non-exceptional quality biosolids are less stringent than criteria for exceptional quality biosolids.

Note: The term 'Biosolids' can be used to refer to all categories of biosolids collectively, or can be used to refer specifically to the category non-exceptional quality biosolids.

  • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Noncommunity Water System

Noncommunity Water System (NCWS)

  1. A public water system that is not a community water system
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
  2. A public water system that is not a community water system. Noncommunity water systems are further categorized as nontransient and transient water systems.
    • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)

Nonsettleable

Particles that take a lengthy amount of time to settle by gravity (i.e. many hours, days, or years).

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)

Nontransient Noncommunity Water System

  1. Nontransient Noncommunity Water System (NTNCWS)
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP14) DBP Rule Violations for Pa. PWSs using Chorine⁄Chloramines (1825)
    • (DBP15) DBP Rule – Maintaining Compliance for Pa. PWSs using Chlorine/Chloramines (1570)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (LCR12) LCR Planning Tools for CWS (2536)
    • (LCR13) LCR Planning Tools for NTNCWS (2537)
    • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
    • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)
  2. A noncommunity water system that regularly serves at least 25 of the same persons over 6 months per year.
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Notice of Violation

Notice of Violation (NOV)

  1. An informal notice from the Pa DEP telling a regulated facility what aspects of a Pa. regulation they have not complied with.
  2. n informal notice telling the PWS what aspects of the TCR they have not complied with
  • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)

NOV

NOV – Notice of Violation

  1. An informal notice from the Pa DEP telling a regulated facility what aspects of a Pa. regulation they have not complied with.
  2. An informal notice telling the PWS what aspects of the TCR they have not complied with.
    • (TCR01) Total Coliform Rule – Overview (1424)
    • TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
    • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)

NPDES

NPDES - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

NPDWR

NPDWR – National Primary Drinking Water Regulations

NPDWRs (or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems.

  • (PNR10) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)
  • (PNR11) Public Notification – Violations and Tiers for NCWSs (2333)

NTNCWS

  1. NTNCWS – Nontransient Noncommunity Water System
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
    • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
    • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
    • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)
    • (DBP30) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)
    • (TCR02) Total Coliform Rule – Monitoring And Reporting Requirements (1425)
    • (TCR03) Total Coliform Rule – Maintaining Compliance (1426)
  2. A noncommunity water system that regularly serves at least 25 of the same persons over 6 months per year.
    • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
    • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Nucleus

A central mass about which other matter collects; a starting point for growth or development.

  • (COA01) Coagulation – Part 1: The Chemistry of Coagulation (1248)
  • (COA02) Coagulation – Part 2: Coagulation Chemicals (1249)

O

O&M

O&M – Operation and Maintenance

  • (PNR01) Public Notification – An Introduction for NCWSs (2332)

OCCT

Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment - Corrosion control treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at users' taps while ensuring that the treatment does not cause the system to violate any primary maximum contaminant level.

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

One full year

any 12-consecutive month period of monitoring.

  • (DBP30) DBP Rule – Monitoring and Reporting Requirements for PWSs Using Ozone (1279)

Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment

Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment (OCCT)

Corrosion control treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at users' taps while ensuring that the treatment does not cause the system to violate any primary maximum contaminant level.

  • (LCR10) Lead and Copper Rule – Basics (1423)
  • (LCR11) LCR – Initial Planning, Monitoring and Reporting (1488)

Organic

  1. Relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis.
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
    • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)
  2. Substances that come from animal or plant sources and contain carbon. Examples include wood, sugars, proteins, plastics, petroleum-based compounds, solvents and pesticides.
    • (BIO01) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 1 (1247)
    • (BIO02) Biosolids Agronomic Loading Rates Part 2 – Manure (1484)

Organic Contaminants

Derived from animals and plants, or may be manufactured chemical compounds. However, all organics contain carbon. Organic contaminants can be biodegradable, which means that the contaminants can be consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms. In the process of being consumed, these organics will exert an oxygen demand (BOD) which can be measured as the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of the wastewater. Some organic contaminants (refractory organics) are resistant to biodegradation.

  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Organic Material

  1. Relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis.
    • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  2. Material which comes mainly from animal or plant sources. Organic wastes generally can be consumed by bacteria and other small organisms.
    • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Organic Substances

Substances that come from animal or plant sources and contain carbon. Examples include wood, sugars, proteins, plastics, petroleum-based compounds, solvents and pesticides.

  • (DBP02) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting – Job Aids (1283)
  • (DBP10) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for Chlorine⁄Chloramines (1284)
  • (DBP13) DBP Rule Monitoring and Reporting for TTHM⁄HAA5 (1285)

Organic Waste

Waste material that comes mainly from animal or plant sources. Organic wastes generally can be consumed by bacteria and other small organisms. Inorganic wastes are chemical substances of mineral origin.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BNR02) Nitrification Factors – Suspended Growth Treatment Systems (1821)

Oxidant

  1. A substance that readily adds (takes on) electrons.
    • (DBP01) DBP Rule – Overview (1282)
  2. A substance that is used as an oxidizing agent, which causes a substance to lose electrons, changing its chemical nature.

Oxidation

The addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen, or the removal of electrons from an element of compound. With respect to water treatment, organic matter is oxidized to more stable substances.

  • (BNR01) Nitrification and Denitrification – An Introduction to Nitrogen Removal (1485)
  • (BIO10) Estimating Sludge Volume (2343)

Ozonation

The application of ozone to water for disinfection or for taste and odor control.

Ozone is an extremely powerful disinfectant and an excellent oxidizing agent.


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